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Managing dental trauma in the emergency

May 11, 2018
0

The trauma to the facial aspect is displaced, fractured or lost teeth that can have impacted significantly on psychological, functional and aesthetic effects on a tooth. The role of dentists must collaborate to create the awareness about treatments and prevention of traumatic injuries to an oral and maxillofacial region.

Dental trauma:

It is the simple or complex branch of dentistry that encompasses, assessment, aetiology, management, epidemiology, prevention, may be interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary management which embraces sequelae of posttraumatic such as resorption of root and its treatment.

Classification of dental trauma:

Ellis Classification 1:

Class 1: Fracture of enamel involving little or no dentin.

Class 2: Fracture of enamel and dentin but no pulp

Class 3: Fracture of enamel, dentin and pulp.

Class 4: Tooth becomes non-vital with or without loss of crown.

Class 5: Traumatically avulsed tooth

Class 6: Fracture of a tooth with or without crown fracture.

Class 7: Displacement of a tooth without fracture of crown or root

Class 8: Fracture of crown en masse and its replacement.

Class 9: Fracture of deciduous teeth

Causes of Dental Trauma:

At 2 or 3 years of age, The incidence of traumatic injuries to the primary teeth is seen during motor coordination is developing whereas traumatic injuries to permanent tooth occur later i.e secondary followed by violence, sports, road accidents, accidental falls, collisions etc:

Management of Dental trauma:

Examination of a patient:

  1. Clean the oral cavity with saline or water
  2. Take note of medical and dental history
  3. Questionnaire:
  4. How/when/where did the injury happen or occur?
  5. Did the patient experience a period of unconsciousness?
  6. Is there any bite disturbances?
  7. Is there any teeth reaction to heat and or cold exposure?

Clinical examination:

  1. Examine the Lips, face and muscles of the oral cavity for lesions of soft tissue
  2. Palpate the signs of fractures and skeletal aspect of the facial region
  3. Inspect the region of dental trauma for abnormal responses to percussion, the mobility of tooth abnormality in tooth position
  4. Pulp testing
  5. Radiographic examination:
  6. Occlusal
  7. Periapical
  8. Panoramic
  9. Photographic documentation: Take a pre and post treatment photograph in order to assess the outcome of treatment, and also for the medicolegal purpose

Traumatic injuries of teeth:

  1. Concussion
  2. Luxation
  3. Fracture

Concussion:

  1. No mobility and displacement of the tooth
  2. Injury and inflamed PDL
  3. Tender tooth

Visual sign: Displacement of tooth

Percussion test: Tender on tapping or touch

Mobility test: No marked increased mobility.

Pulp sensibility test:

  1. Positive Result
  2. Important in assessing the risk of complication in healing
  3. Lessor lack of response to the test indicates an increased risk of pulp necrosis laterally.

Radiographic Findings: Nil

Radiographs:

  1. Occlusal
  2. Periapical

Instructions are given:

  1. One week soft diet
  2. Brush teeth using soft bristles
  3. To prevent plaque accumulation advised rinsing 0.1 % chlorohexidine mouthwash.

Luxation:

Displaced tooth in labial, lingual or labial direction, Periodontal ligament partial or

total separation, Supporting alveolus fractures may occur. It is similar to extrusion injuries.

Visual sign: Displaced usually in labial, palatal or lingual direction.

Percussion test: Metallic sound is usually heard.

Mobility Test: Immobile tooth

Pulp Sensibility Test: Except for teeth with minor displacement gives a lack of response.This test is important in assessing the healing complication risk. In initial examination indicates positive result to a reduced risk of pulp necrosis in the later stage.

Radiographic Findings: Widened periapical ligament is seen on occlusal exposure.

Radiograph: periapical, occlusal

Treatment:

  1. Before repositioning, rinse the exposed part of root surface with saline.
  2. Apply local anaesthesia and reposition the tooth with digital pressure or forceps in order to disengage it from the socket of bone.
  3. Gently reposition it into original position, stabilise the tooth for 4 weeks using a flexible splint, due to associated fracture nearly 4 weeks is indicated.

Instruction is given:

  1. 1 week for soft food
  2. Use soft bristles for brushing the teeth
  3. In order to prevent plaque accumulation rinse with 0.1% chlorohexidine mouthwash.

Enamel fracture:

It is confined to enamel with loss of tooth fracture

Visual Sign: Loss of enamel seen

Percussion Test: Non-tender, in case of tenderness, evaluate tooth for a possible root fracture injury or for a Luxation.

Mobility Test: Mobility is normal

Radiographic Findings: Loss of enamel is visible

Radiograph: Periapical and occlusal.

Treatment: Restoration of a tooth with composite resin depending on the extent and also the location of the fracture. In case of a tooth, fragment treatment is bonding to the tooth is the treatment of choice.

Enamel- Dentin fracture:

Enamel and dentin fracture without involving pulp.

Visual Sign: Loss of enamel and dentin

Percussion test: Non-tender, In case of tenderness evaluate tooth for apossible root fracture injury or luxation.

Mobility Test:  Mobility normal

Radiographic findings: Visible enamel and dentin loss.

Radiograph: Occlusal and periapical.

Treatment: Treatment is done covering exposed dentin with glass ionomer or a permanent restoration using a and composite resin and bonding agent.

Enamel – Dentin – Pulp fracture:

Enamel and dentin loss of tooth and pulp exposure is seen

Visual sign: Loss of enamel, dentin and exposed pulp tissue.

Percussion test: Non-tender

Mobility test: Mobility normal

Radiographic findings: Tooth substance loss is visible

Radiograph: occlusal, periapical

Treatment: To preserve pulp vitality for young patients with open apex by pulp capping or partial pulpotomy in order to secure development of the tooth. This treatment is also the treatment of choice for closed apices patients.

Calcium hydroxide compounds and MTA are used for such procedure. In older patients with closed apices and luxation injury with displacement, The treatment of choice is RCT.

Crown, root fracture without pulp involvement:

It involves enamel, dentin, cementum with loss of tooth structure but not exposing pulp.

Visual Sign: Fracture of crown extending below gingival margin.

Percussion Test: Tender is seen.

Mobility Test: Fragment of the coronal part is mobile.

Radiographic findings: Apical extension of fracture not visible usually.

Radiograph: Occlusal and periapical.

Treatment :

  1. Removal of the fragment.
  2. Gingivectomy and removal of crown sometimes osteotomy.
  3. Extrusion of fragment apically orthodontically.
  4. Surgical extrusion
  5. Decoration
  6. Extraction in severe cases.

Crown-root fracture with pulp involvement:

Enamel, dentin, cementum with loss of tooth structure and pulp exposure.

Visual Sign: Fracture of crown extending below the gingival margin

Percussion test: Tender on the tooth is seen on percussion.

Mobility test: Mobility of coronal fragment.

Radiographic findings: Fracture of apical extension usually not visible.

Radiograph: Occlusal and periapical.

Treatment :

  1. Fragment removal and gingivectomy.
  2. Fragment orthodontic extrusion
  3. Surgical extrusion
  4. Extraction with severe cases.

Root fracture:

Fracture associated with the root of tooth involving cementum, dentin and pulp.

Visual Sign: Coronal part of tooth mobility is seen, in some cases displaced sometimes crown discolouration transiently gingival sulcus bleeding.

Percussion test: Tender tooth

Mobility test: Coronal segment of the tooth mobility is seen.

Radiographic finding: Line of root fracture visible. In a horizontal or diagonal plane fracture involves root of the tooth.

Treatment:

  1. Before repositioning rinse exposed root surface with saline.In case of displacement reposition the coronal segment of the tooths soon as possible.
  2. Recheck it radiographically the correct position of the placed tooth.
  3. Stabilise the tooth with a flexible splint for 4 weeks.
  4. Stabilisation is beneficial for a longer period of time up to 4 months if the root fracture is near the cervical area of the tooth
  5. To determine pulpal status monitor healing for at least 1 year.
  6. In case of the fracture seen RCT of the coronal segment and also for the pulp necrosis indicated.

In determining the success of tooth replantation the paramount is extra-oral time 2. The common injuries are enamel and dentin fractures 3. Timely care is important because these are the situations of an inappropriate or inefficient case of emergency.

References:

  1. Sasikala Pagadala1*, Deepti Chaitanya Tadikonda2 Pagadala S, Tadikonda DC. An overview of the classification of dental trauma IAIM, 2015; 2(9):157-164
  2. Ritu NamdevAyushi JindalSmriti BhargavaLokesh BakshiReena Verma, and Disha Beniwal. Awareness of emergency management of dental trauma Contemp Clin Dent. 2014 Oct-Dec; 5(4): 507–513
  3. Jackson NG1Waterhouse PJMaguire A. Management of dental trauma in primary care: a postal survey of general dental practitioners. Br Dent J. 2005 Mar 12;198(5):293-7;

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DISCLAIMER : “The purpose of content(text, graphics and visuals) on this site is to promote broad consumer understanding and knowledge of various dental, health and wellness topics. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your dentist/physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a dental/medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.”

Pregnancy, oral health and you | TIPS for to be moms

Apr 11, 2018
0

 

Pregnancy, oral health and you.

Good oral care plays a vital role in our daily lives; it helps to keep our gums healthy and our teeth free from cavities. Our intake of food primarily is from our mouth and any nutritional deficiency is immediately seen in the oral cavity. Maintaining oral hygiene is important, as ratio of oral diseases is not constrained to a particular age group, it equally affects both men and women. From a health perspective, there are many differences between genders based on physiological characteristics. Oral health is no different and is affected by hormonal fluctuation during pregnancy, menstruation and menopause. Some of the common oral diseases occuring during pregnancy are gingivitis,periodontitis, bad breath, pregnancy tumours, dental caries, TMJ disorder, bruxism, dry mouth, etc.

  • Gingivitis: Inflammation of gums is known as pregnancy gingivitis. During pregnancy nearly 65 to 75% of women are prone to gum conditions like infection or bleeding due to increased imbalance in hormones. This starts in the second month and can continue through the nine months of pregnancy. The gums become tender, swollen, red and bleeds when brushed as well as flossed. Also due to hormonal changes blood flow in the gum tissue is increased and is more sensitive to the bacteria of plaque, if it is left untreated this progresses to periodontists so rather than ignoring, seeking dental help and undergoing required treatment would be of great help.
  • Periodontitis: It is the inflammation of the gums surrounding structures of teeth which progressively destroy ligaments, connective tissue, bone, etc. The cause of periodontitis during pregnancy is untreated gingivitis, the elevated prostaglandins, C reactive protein and spread of bacteria. The receptors of estrogen and progesterone found in the tissues of periodontium, increased levels affects the tissue response, to the vessels of gingiva, fibroblast and extracellular matrix. The symptoms of periodontitis are swollen gums, tenderness, bleeding gums, interproximal wide spaces between the teeth, gums pull away the teeth, receding gums, weakens and loosens the tooth. According to recent study of periodontology, the adverse effects of periodontitis is Premature Low Birth Weight babies. (PLBW). The treatment of periodontitis is scaling and root planing prevents the adverse outcome caused during pregnancy.
  • Bad breath: Also known as halitosis, is a condition of foul breath. Food particles when contacts with bacteria produces sulphur compound and hence causes bad breath. Brushing regularly twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is a good practise of oral hygiene and would relieve from bad breath.
  • Pregnancy tumour: Is a condition of hyperplasia with inflammatory lesion seen in oral cavity. It prevails among 10 to 20 percent of women and known with other names as pregnancy epilude/granuloma pregnancy/pyogenic granuloma/lobular capillary haemangioma. It occurs after the first trimester of pregnancy caused by hormonal changes. It is asymptomatic, with well-defined, single or multiple raised nodules, size may vary from 0.5 to 2.5 cms. The symptoms are difficulty in swallowing and chewing, the may ulcerate and bleed. The recommended treatment is surgical lesion of the tumour, also advanced laser surgery .
  • Dental caries: Tooth decays during pregnancy is due to saliva with high cariogenic bacteria, improper oral hygiene, vomiting and nutritional deficiencies. Consult your dentist and undergo suggested treatment procedures would help reduce the risks caused by tooth decay.
  • TMJ disorder:TMJ refers to temporomandibular joint, The TMJ disorder is jaw pain. Swelling in TMJ is due to stress during pregnancy. The pressure around the temporomandibular joint results in swelling of face progressively lead to headache, uncomfortable movements and also discomfort while opening the jaw. If the pain persists for prolonged period of time, it’s better to consult a dentist.
  • Bruxism: Is also known as teeth grinding. It occurs due to hormonal changes, physical and physiological stress, emotional worries during pregnancy and results in jaw pain, headache, teeth pain, insomnia, etc. Overall effects results the mother to be stress and tension with emotional pressure leads to affect the foetus growth. Certain medications like Ibuprofen (NSAIDs) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and also muscle relaxants recommended by dental practitioner may help to get relief from teeth grinding.
  • Dry mouth: Known as xerostomia, it occurs due to decreased saliva flow, dehydration, gestational diabetes, metabolic changes, prescribed drugs and its effects. The symptoms of dry mouth is metallic and bitter taste in mouth, dental caries, cracked lips, gingivitis, bad breath, difficulty in chewing and swallowing, burning sensation in the mouth, mouth sores, etc. It is advised to chew xylitol chewinggum and intake of sialogogues helps to increase salivary flow to a certain extent. In case of severity consult a dental practitioner at the earliest.

Tips for to be moms (Stages of pregnancy)

1.      Before pregnancy

    1. Consult a dentist for regular check up in order to know about the status of your oral health.
    2. If any treatment is suggested, it is best advice to undergo and follow the regimen prescribed as per the dentist.

2.      During first trimester

    1. Inform the dentist that you are pregnant.
    2. Frequently rinse your mouth out if suffering from morning sickness.
    3. In order to avoid morning sickness use bland toothpaste.
    4. Use small and soft bristles toothbrush in order to avoid vomiting.
    5. Never brush immediately after vomiting.

3.      During second trimester

    1. Avoid of sugary snacks.
    2. It is good to have healthy diet with Vitamin C, B12 and Calcium supplements to build your teeth strong and healthy.
    3. If any pregnancy tumour is seen, consult a dentist immediately.

4.      During Third Trimester

    1. Avoid undergoing dental procedures.
    2. Regularly brush and floss your teeth twice in a day.
    3. Schedule a dental appointment after the baby is born.

5.      Postpartum nursing

    1. Consult your dentist soon after your delivery.
    2. X- ray and local anaesthetics are safe during breastfeeding.
    3. It is safe to postpone major dental procedure until this time.

Dental science is modernised and clear in its understanding that oral hygiene plays a vital role prior to as well as during pregnancy. During pregnancy, it is always good to follow awareness of knowledge gained about dental regimens. Although an effort of understanding is finally to keep and maintain good oral health status by hoping moms for growing foetus.

Also, checkout oral hygiene tips for children: Click here

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DISCLAIMER : “The purpose of content(text, graphics and visuals) on this site is to promote broad consumer understanding and knowledge of various dental, health and wellness topics. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your dentist/physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a dental/medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.”

Dental hygiene for the pregnant woman

Mar 13, 2018
0
Pregnancy
Food

The development of the teeth of the embryo begins towards the 5th and 6th weeks of intrauterine life, so it is sometimes even before the confirmation of your pregnancy! From the beginning, a special importance to food is required. Sticky and sugary foods should be avoided and if they are consumed, immediate brushing is indicated.

The sugars and the absence of brushing cause the lowering of the pH of the saliva below the critical threshold where the production of acid triggers the demineralization process of tooth enamel, the first stage of tooth decay. The more the consumption of sugars is frequent, the more the involvement of the enamel will progress towards the less calcified parts of the inside of the tooth (dentin and pulp).

Vitamins and minerals

Pregnancy requires a sufficient amount of vitamins (A, B, C, D, etc.) as well as minerals (phosphorus, iron, calcium, etc.). The calcium in your teeth is stable and the baby can not change that structure. However, if your calcium intake is insufficient (eg dairy products), the embryo will draw calcium from your bones.

Dental treatments during pregnancy

During the first trimester, a consultation with your dental hygienist is recommended. By knowing your condition, she will evaluate your oral condition and advise you appropriately. The hygienist will completely clean your teeth, removing all deposits responsible for dental caries and gum disease (bio-film or plaque, tartar, stains).

Even if dental X-rays are safe, they will not be taken until after your pregnancy, except in emergency situations (eg, abscess, fracture, etc.). If this is the case, the lead apron covering the abdomen will still be used. When curative treatments are required, they can usually be planned during the second trimester of pregnancy and the products used (eg, anesthetic) have no adverse effect on the fetus. Some treatments will however have to be postponed after pregnancy (ex: bleaching).

Pregnancy gingivitis (or pregnancy)

Hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause a reaction in the gums and the presence of bio-film (dental plaque) can aggravate this situation. Swelling, redness, tenderness and spontaneous bleeding are possible. It is important to maintain good daily oral hygiene by brushing, using a soft bristle brush and fluoride toothpaste, and using dental floss. With good care, the condition of your gums will recover after delivery.

Premature birth and low birth weight babies

Many studies show that toxins present in periodontal disease (tooth support: gums and bones) cause the risk of premature birth and low birth weight babies. These children have lower resistance to infections and more often have birth or developmental abnormalities.

nausea

Brushing with a soft-bristled brush and rinsing the mouth with water or a fluoride mouthwash helps to reduce the stomach acid deposited on the teeth and mucous membranes, as well as in the mouth. saliva.

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DISCLAIMER : “The purpose of content(text, graphics and visuals) on this site is to promote broad consumer understanding and knowledge of various dental, health and wellness topics. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your dentist/physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a dental/medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.”

Dental hygiene for children

Tips for children
The eruption of teeth

The last teeth of milk finish their eruption between 20 months and 33 months and these will remain in the mouth until the age of 11 or 12 years. Primary teeth play an important role in permanent dentition as they prepare and maintain the location of the teeth until the eruption occurs between 6 years and 13 years.

brushing

Brushing should be done at least twice a day, using a soft bristle brush and fluoride toothpaste (the size of a pea toothpaste is sufficient). If the child has a susceptibility to tooth decay, brushing should also be followed by every meal and every sweet or sticky snack.

You are a model

The young child observes and seeks to imitate. Encourage him to hold the brush and brush himself. However, you must always complete the brushing because the child does not acquire the dexterity required until the age of 6 years and sometimes even 8 years! Children under 6 must always be accompanied by an adult when brushing their teeth to ensure that every surface is cleaned, to make sure the child does not swallow toothpaste and rinses properly his mouth.

Some children have spaced teeth and others have tighter teeth. No toothbrush can clean properly when two teeth are in contact. The decay can develop there, only the dental floss will make it possible to complete these places. To do this, at least once a day, your child will need your help until he has the required skill. The sooner you start flossing, the better your dexterity and the sooner you’ll be inclined to include that excellent habit in your daily routine.

Visit to the dental hygienist

Your child should continue to visit the dental hygienist every six or twelve months, depending on the frequency established to ensure optimal follow-up, according to his needs. It is always good to prepare the child well before the visit: history books and role plays will help you. Prefer an appointment in the morning because the child is at this time well rested. The visits will mainly consist of a polishing of the teeth, a fluoride application and personalized advice from the dental hygienist.

Sealing of pits and fissures (sealent)

The troughs and furrows of the chewing surface of the permanent teeth easily trap food debris and bacteria from the bio-film (dental plaque), thus promoting the development of decay. As soon as the first permanent molars have erupted (around the age of six) and according to the morphology that they will present, sealing may be advisable. This resin will fill the hollows and furrows and, combined with good hygiene, prevent the development of cavities.

Food

The choice of snacks is important for your child’s dental health. Fresh fruits and vegetables and some cheeses are great snacks for his dental health. 100% pure fruit juices are preferable to fruit drinks or cocktails, which are very high in sugar and low in vitamins. However, a large amount of juice promotes an acidic environment, conducive to cavities. Nothing better than water to appease big thirsts. Finally, make sure your child consumes enough dairy products.

Bonus: Download our monthly e-bulletin! Click here to get it

DISCLAIMER : “The purpose of content(text, graphics and visuals) on this site is to promote broad consumer understanding and knowledge of various dental, health and wellness topics. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your dentist/physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a dental/medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.”

Smiles, attracts. Nice smiles? Even more.

Oral hygiene
A healthy mouth is characterized by pink gums, without swelling and that do not bleed when brushing. Hormonal changes however, cause a reaction in the gums and the presence of bio-film (dental plaque) can aggravate this situation. Swelling, redness, tenderness and spontaneous bleeding is possible. This condition of the gums is abnormal but can redeemed quickly when you maintain good oral hygiene daily, by brushing with a toothbrush with soft bristles and a fluoride toothpaste.

Since no toothbrush can reach the contact surfaces between the teeth and the gap between the gum and tooth, where tooth decay and gum disease is more likely to develop; flossing is recommended.

Cracks in the tongue contain dead cells, bio-film (dental plaque) and food debris that can only be removed with a toothbrush or a tongue cleaner.

Food
It is vital to consume enough dairy products and each of the other food groups; fresh fruits, vegetables and some cheeses are great snacks for your teeth.

Sweetened energy drinks as well as sticky and sweet foods should be limited. If such foods are consumed, brushing/rinsing is necessary. The sugars and the absence of brushing promote the production of acid and thus initiates the first stage of tooth decay. The more frequent the consumption of sugars, the more enamel involvement progresses towards the inside of the tooth (dentin and pulp) and the more the decay spreads.

Visit a dentist!
A dental visit is mandatory every six to twelve months, which can help to detect beginner caries, gum disease and other symptoms (oral lesions, wisdom teeth, etc.). Oral hygiene advice, preventive methods, proposed treatment plan and the frequency are personalized to the individuals oral condition.

Piercing
The friction of piercing in the cheek, tongue or lip can create wear or fracture of a tooth, as well as irritation, bleeding and loosening of the gums. In addition, piercings are an open door to bacteria and risks of infection which can affect the general health and leave after effects for several years.

Smoking
You may be one of the 75% of smokers who want to quit this habit but need help. Like all health professionals, dentists have information about it. The very first signs of the harmful effects of tobacco are manifested in the mouth, so the smoker is informed of the condition of his mouth at each visit.

Halitosis (bad breath)
Halitosis or bad breath can be occasional or chronic, however it can persists in spite of a good oral hygiene; hormonal changes, medical problems or even medications can alter your breath.

The most common causes come from the oral cavity: poor hygiene, dental problems (e.g. tooth decay, abscesses, gum infection, etc.) , mouth breathing, tobacco, certain foods, etc. Good daily oral hygiene, healthy lifestyle habits, proper cleaning and dental care eliminate many of the causes of bad breath.

Whitening
Stains caused by tobacco and soda can usually be removed during professional cleaning. In a healthy person whose teeth are mature and healthy, the hue can be changed through bleaching. The result varies according to the color of the tooth and its response to the whitening product. A dentist must first provide the patient with all the required information:

Orthodontics
It’s very challenging to maintain good oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. In order to facilitate the control of the bio-film (dental plaque), specially designed toothbrushes are available (orthodontic brushes), an electric toothbrush can be used and the use of small brushes to clean between the rings.

Wisdom teeth
When present, the wisdom teeth (third molars) erupt between 17 and 22 years. Depending on their position or the space available, the third molars must sometimes be extracted if malpositioned, lack of space, etc.

Sealing of wells and cracks
Hollow areas and furrows in the chewing surface of permanent teeth easily trap food debris and bacteria from the bio-film (dental plaque). This promotes the development of cavities. When the premolars and the second permanent molars finish their eruption (between 11 and 15 years old) and the furrows are deep, the sealing may be advisable. Combined with good hygiene, this treatment performed by the dental professionals, helps to prevent decay of masticatory surfaces.

Energy drinks
These are very sweet drinks, responsible for caries and dental erosion.

 

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DISCLAIMER : “The purpose of content(text, graphics and visuals) on this site is to promote broad consumer understanding and knowledge of various dental, health and wellness topics. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your dentist/physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a dental/medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.”